• Direct Current ( DC ) is the result of the flow of electrons ( negative charge) by a conductor ( wire or copper wire almost always ), which is the negative terminal to the positive terminal of a battery. Flows in one direction through a load . A focus / bulb in this case. The current does not change its magnitude and its direction with time.
  • Input Devices : These devices allow the user to enter computer data, commands and programs on the CPU. The most common input device is similar to the typewriter keyboard. The information entered with it, is transformed by the computer into recognizable patterns . Data is read from the input devices and stored in the central or internal memory. Input Devices , turn information into electrical signals that are stored in the main memory.

The most common are:

  • Keyboard : The keyboard is not effective to introduce graphic data as image labels associated with a display of graphic device. Keyboards can also be provided with features that facilitate entry screen coordinates , menu selections or graphics functions .
  •  Mouse or Mouse: It is an electronic device that allows us to instruct our computer through a cursor displayed on the screen and clicking to be carried out a specific action; as the mouse wheel over the desktop, the cursor (pointer) on the screen does the same.
  • Such a procedure will control, aim, hold and manipulate several graphics (and text) objects in a program. This peripheral was called for its resemblance to a rodent. There are models in which the transmission is by infrared thereby eliminating the need for wiring. Like the keyboard, the mouse is the peripheral element that is used in a PC.
  • Microphone: Microphones are transducers responsible for transforming acoustic energy into electrical energy, allowing therefore the recording, storage, transmission and electronic processing of audio signals. They are dual loudspeakers devices, both transducers constituting the most significant elements in terms of sound characteristics that impose on audio signals.
  • Scanner: A unit of data entry. Allows the introduction of graphic images to the computer system using a dot matrix, as a result of optical scanning of the document. The information is stored in files as bitmaps (bit maps), or other more efficient formats such as JPEG or GIF.
  • Digital Camera: connects to your computer and transmits the images captured and can be modified and retouched, or take it again if this evil.
  • Video Camera: Records video like a normal camera, but the advantages of being in digital format, which is much better image, has an LCD screen that simultaneously see the image while recording. It connects to the PC and this includes the video you’ve recorded, to touch it up later with the appropriate software.
  • Video Camera: Records video like a normal camera, but the advantages of being in digital format, which is much better image, has an LCD screen that simultaneously see the image while recording. It connects to the PC and this includes the video you’ve recorded, to touch it up later with the appropriate software.
  • Output devices : These devices allow the user to see the results of calculations or data manipulations computer . The most common output device is the display unit ( VDU , an acronym for Video Display Unit) , consisting of a monitor that displays characters and graphics similar to the TV screen.

Types of Output Devices most common are:

  • Display or Monitor: This is where the information is supplied by the computer. In the most common case is a based on cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs as apparatus, while the portable is a flat liquid crystal display (LCD).
  • Printer: is the computer peripheral used to present information printed on paper. The first printers were born many years before the PC and even before the monitors, the most usual to present the results of the calculations in those early computers method.
  • No resemblance to their ancestors printers of those times, there is no doubt that was like printers before PCs, the there will be after them, although based on technologies that they have not yet even been invented.
  • Speakers: Devices for which sounds from your sound card is issued. Currently there are enough copies to cover the most common supply that exists in the market. These are models ranging from the simple (a pair of speakers Esther eo), even the most complicated system of Dolby Digital, with no fewer than six speakers, through intermediates 4 or 5 speakers.
  • Headphones: These are devices placed in the ear to hear the sounds that sends sound card. They have the advantage that can not be heard by another person, who uses only.
  • Plotters (plotter): There plotters for different maximum sizes of sheets (A0, A1, A2, A3 and A4); for different qualities of output sheets (bond, calc acetate); for different thicknesses of line drawing (different thicknesses rapidographs) and for drawing different colors (different colors of ink in the rapidographs).
  • Fax: device by which a copy of another printed, transmitted either via phone or fax from the print itself. It is used for a roll of paper when printing just cut.
  •  Multimeter: A multimeter, also called polímetro 1 or tester is a portable instrument for measuring electrical quantities directly active as current and potential (voltage), or passive, such as resistors, and other capabilities.
  • The measures can be carried out for direct or alternating current and several measuring ranges each. Then there are analog and digital have been introduced whose function is the same, with some added variant.


  • Source AT: sends a signal to the main source, indicating that switches on or off the auxiliary power 220 VAC, remaining always on, and always connected. The operation of this button is very similar to the button on the remote control of a TV.
  • Source ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) has a size of 305 mm 244 mm (12 “by 9.6”). This allows in some cases fit ATX micro ATX also plates Boza.
  • Another feature of the ATX motherboards are the type of connector to the power supply, which is 24 (20 + 4) contacts that allow a unique way of connection and avoid mistakes like the AT fonts and other additional connector called P4, 4 contacts. They also have a software system shutdown.
  • Royal Watts: That is an electric concept. Usually it named when speaking of audio or audio systems. Sound information is transmitted through cable by sine waves.

 Connectors Source ( 20/24 Pines ATX , ATX P4 ) :

  • ATX connector 20/24 Pines : Is that feeds the motherboard , formerly 20-pin , the current rule provides for 24 pins . Almost always it consists of a block of 20-pin , to which we can add a block of 4 pins. This in order to respect the compatibility with the old plates with 20-pin connectors .
  • ATX P4 ( or also ATX 12V) , connects to the motherboard and is exclusively for processor power , without it is impossible to start the computer. Today most motherboards have 8 pins, due to increased CPU power .
  •  Mother or Mainboard Card: A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board of a computer system or other complex electronic system. A typical computer with the microprocessor, main memory, and other essential components on the motherboard. Other computer components such as external storage, control circuits for video and sound, and peripheral devices are attached to the motherboard via connectors or cables of some sort.
  • The motherboard is the main component of a personal computer. It is the component that integrates all others. Choosing the right one can be difficult because there are thousands. These are the elements that should be considered:

Motherboards parts: Good. Since we define the type of processor by price and performance we should look for certain features of the motherboard. Each processor has the type of motherboard that serves (Although some have the same type) so this defines more or less the motherboard that we will use. Today motherboards bring embedded serial ports (mouse, scanner, etc.), parallel (printer) and keyboard input, so that’s why we should not worry.

  •  Processor: This is the brain of the computer. Depending on the type of processor and its speed acuIite you get better or worse performance. Today there are several brands and types, of which try to give an idea of its main features.
  • Memory Cache: The cache is part of the motherboard and processor (There are two types) and is used to quickly access the information used by the processor. There are primary cache (L1) and secondary cache (L2). The primary cache is defined by the processor and can not be removed or put. Instead the secondary cache can be added to the motherboard. Hand rule is that if you have 8 megabytes (MB) of RAM should be 128 kilobytes (KB) of cache. If you have 16 Mb 256 Kb are and if you have 32 Mb are 512 Kb. It seems that henceforth much improvement is observed with increasing the cache size. The Pentium II have included the secondary cache on the processor and this is typically 512 Kb.
  • PC Motherboard: A motherboard is a printed circuit board used in a personal computer. This is also known as the main card. The term “main board” is also used for the main circuit board in other electronic devices. The remainder of this article discusses the so-called “IBM-compatible PC” motherboard.

Like any other computer system, all the basic circuitry and components required for a PC to run any mounts directly on the motherboard or an expansion card plugged into an expansion slot on the motherboard. A PC motherboard allows attachment of the CPU, graphics card, sound card, controller IDE / ATA / Serial ATA hard disk, memory (RAM), and if all other devices in a computer system. It contains the chipset, which controls the operation of the CPU, PCI slots, and ISA expansion AGP, and (usually) controllers IDE / ATA also. Most devices can join a motherboard are connected via one or more expansion slots or sockets.

  • Jacks CPU: There are different expansion slots and sockets for CPUs depending on which CPU you need to use, it is important that the motherboard has the correct plug for the CPU. Plug A is used for AMD Athlon and Duron processors, plug A is for AMD Athlon old, the plug 478 is for processors Pentium 4 Northwood, plug 423 is used for Intel Pentium 4 processors, plug 370 is for Intel processors Pentium III and Celeron slot 1 / slot 2 is for older Intel Pentium II / III and Celeron, plug 7 is for Intel Pentium and Pentium MMX, Super7 processors (socket 7 with a bus speed of 100MHz) is for AMD K6 , K6-2 and K6-3, and plug 8 is for Pentium Pro. the newest outlets with three-digit numbers is called after the number of pins in it. Old people are simply called after the order of invention.
  • Cards peripheral expansion slots: There are usually a number of expansion card slots to allow peripheral devices and cards to be inserted. Each slot is compatible with one or more industry standard bus. Buses commonly available include: ISA (Industri Standard Architecture), EISA (Extended ISA), MCA (Micro Channel Architecture), VESA (Video Electronic Standards Association), PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) and AGP (Advanced Graphics Port)
  • UNIVERSAL  SERIAL: The Universal Serial Bus (BUS) (in English: Universal Serial Bus), better known by the USB acronym, it is an industry standard bus that defines the cables, connectors and protocols used in a bus to connect, communicate and power supply between computers, peripherals and consumer electronic devices.
  • USB is used as a standard for connecting peripherals such as keyboards, mice, USB flash drives, joysticks, scanners, digital cameras, mobile phones, media players, printers, multifunction devices, systems, data acquisition, modems, network cards, cards sound, TV tuner cards and external DVD recorders, external hard drives and external floppy drives.

 connectors: HDMI, DVI, VGA:

  • The VGA connector is to be used, and is still used to connect the PC to an analog monitor. Although they are known as VGA (Video Graphics Array), really existing connectors do not work under the VGA standard, which can display up to 256 colors from a palette of 262,144 colors with a maximum resolution of 720 × 480 and a maximum refresh 70Hz, but SVGA (super video graphics array), which allows for resolutions and color palettes far greater, as we are accustomed.
  • HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) connector type is the most currently used and, of course, the newest. The main difference with other types and particularly with DVI is that of transmitting the digital video signal is also capable of transmitting audio. And both uncompressed. This connection offers a bandwidth of up to 5 gigabytes per second, so it is used to send signals HD, 1920 x 1080 pixels (1080i, 1080p) or 1280 x 720 pixels (720p).
  • IPS LCD screens, AMOLED and Retina: The screen is a fundamental thing. The screen resolution has always been a decisive factor. Its technology, therefore, takes on a key role.
  •  LCD: The LCD panels are the opposite of AMOLED screens. They are divided into two categories: TFT and IPS. The second technology is an evolution of the first. TFT LCD stands for “Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display” (LCD and thin film transistor). Its main advantage is that the cost of production of these screens is really low. Its disadvantage is that it needs a lot of energy.
  • Retina: The concept of the famous Retina display was developed by IBM in 1998, although he is not associated with that name. The term itself is not based on any particular characteristic, if not simply very high, sensitive beyond what the human eye can distinguish at a distance resolution.
  • AMOLED & Super AMOLED: The AMOLED is derived from the OLED itself, which in turn is an evolution of the TFT.

The principle of AMOLED is the association of an active matrix OLED panel a. The active matrix is actually a way to send electrical information to be displayed independently for each pixel. In addition, the liquid crystals (remember the meaning of the LCD acronym?) Are replaced by diodes that produce light by themselves. Unlike an LCD panel, which provides no backlighting.

  • Screen Resolutions: it refers to the number of pixels that make up the picture on the TV. A single pixel, consists of a small dot on the screen.
  • Sockets: It is an electromechanical system and electrical connection support, installed on the motherboard, which is used to set and connect a microprocessor.
  • MULTICORE: A multi-core microprocessor is one that combines two or more independent processors into a single package, often a single integrated circuit. A dual-core device contains only two independent microprocessors. In general, multicore microprocessors allow a computing device exhibits some form of thread level parallelism (thread-level parallelism) (TLP) not including multiple microprocessors in separate physical packages. This form of TLP is often known as chip-level multiprocessing (chip-level multiprocessing) or CMP.

 DDR, DDR2 and DDR3

  • DDR: modules DDR-SDRAM memory are the same size as SDRAM DIMMs, but with more connectors 184 pins instead of the normal 168 SDRAM. The DDRs modules support a maximum capacity of 1Gb.
  •  DDR2: DDR2 SDRAM is the second generation of DDR SDRAM.
  • DDR2 SDRAM DDR SDRAM improved signaling and differential voltages lower use to support the implementation of the advantages of DDR SDRAM. differential signaling requires more contacts, so the number of contacts in a memory module DDR SDRAM DIMM rose from 184 to 240.
  • DDR3: DDR3 SDRAM (Double Data Rate Three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) is the third generation of DDR SDRAM. Voltage DDR3 SDRAM DIMM’s was reduced from 1.8V to 1.5V. This reduces power consumption and heat generation and allow higher density memory configurations greater capacity.


  • SATA: This is an interface data transfer between the motherboard and some storage devices such as hard disk, readers and regrabadores CD / DVD / BR, Solid-State Drives or other devices of high performance being yet developed.
  • PATA: It is an interface standard for connecting devices mass data storage and optical drives using derivative ATA standard and the ATAPI standard.
  • Expansion Slots AGP, PCI, PCI Express: The expansion slot (or expansion slot) is an element of the motherboard of the computer, which allows connection to an expansion card or additional card, which can perform functions control additional peripherals, such as: monitors, projectors, televisions, modems, printers or disk drives.
  • (AGP), “Accelerated Graphics Port” is a bus specification that provides a direct connection between the graphics adapter and memory. It is a port (since only one device can be connected, while on the bus can connect multiple)
  •  The AGP port is used exclusively to connect a graphics card, and because of its architecture can be only one slot. This groove is approximately 8 cm and is located on one side of the PCI slots.
  • PCI Its speed is greater than PCI-Express, but has the disadvantage that installing more than one device base frequency is reduced and slows transmission.

 transmission means (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, IrDA, RJ11, RJ45, RS-232):

  • Wi-Fi: The most popular wireless router is WiFi for being the most used to access the Internet from anywhere there is an access point (Access Point or AP), especially in laptops and PDAs with WiFi card. Also known as 802.11, is the device that meets the standards set for WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network – wireless local area network). The IEEE 802.11 standard is a radio frequency developed by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), and most operating systems support, as well as many of the laptops, cell / mobile next-generation consoles, printers and other peripherals.
  • BLUETOOTH: It is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (WPANs) that enables the transmission of voice and data between different devices through a radio frequency link in the ISM band 2.4 GHz.

 Cooling Systems:

  • Simple Heatsink: only contacts with the CPU heat sink for dissipating heat this.
  •  Air chilling sink addition, it includes a fan, which cools the heatsink to remove more heat.
  • Liquid cooling: is to run a cooling liquid in a circuit designed to remove heat from the CPU and thus lower the temperature, the liquid is cooled after each cycle.


  • CD: The CD-ROM allows you to use optical discs of a capacity greater than 3.5-inch floppy disks: up to 700 MB. This is their main advantage, because the CD-ROM have become the standard for distributed operating systems, applications, etc. The use of these units is widespread, as they also let you read audio CDs.
  • DVD: The DVD-ROM drives are apparently the same as CD-ROM, you can read both DVD-ROMs and CD-ROM. They differ from reading CD-ROM in which the support employee has up to 17 GB capacity, and speed reading of data. Speed is another number of ‘x’ 12x, 16x … But now the x refers to 1.32 MB / s. Thus: 16x = 21.12 MB / s.
  • BLUERAY: A device that mounts in 5.25 “bays cabinet basically integrates within itself an issuer special blue laser beam to read data recorded on a CD data (” Compact Disc “), a DVD (” Versatile Digital disc “) and DB (” Blu-ray disc “), a motor for rotating the disc and a tray to place. After reading the data, this unit is also responsible for sending them via a cable to the main board (Motherboard) to be processed.

 joystick, gamepad, headbands, MICROPHONE.

  • JOYSTICK: A device control two or three axes used from a computer or game console to a space shuttle or fighter planes, passing cranes.
  • REMOTE CONTROL: An electronic device used to perform remote operation (or remote) on a machine. The term is generally used to refer to the remote control (usually called simply “command” or in Latin America, “control”) to the TV or other home electronic devices such as DVD, Hi-Fi, computers and to turn on and off a switch, alarm, or open the door parking.
  • HEADSET: There are so called headset microphones are those, which, as its name suggests, stick to your head like a headband any, allowing the user more comfort and no need to hold it with your hands, allowing you other activities.
  • Microphone: Microphones are transducers responsible for transforming acoustic energy into electrical energy, allowing therefore the recording, storage, transmission and electronic processing of audio signals. They are dual loudspeakers devices, both transducers constituting the most significant elements in terms of sound characteristics that impose on audio signals.

 WIRELESS KEYBOARD: It is often common keyboards where communication between the computer and the peripheral is via infrared, radio waves or via Bluetooth.

  • WIRELESS MOUSE: In this case the device lacks a cable of a cable of a cable to connect you to the computer instead uses some kind of wireless technology. To do this requires a receiver that receives the wireless signal produced by batteries, the mouse. The receiver is usually connected to the computer through a USB port or PS / 2.
  • USB PORTS: It is a general way of referring to an interface through which different types of data can be sent and received. This interface can be physical, or may be at the level of software (eg ports that allow transmission of data between different computers).
  • PS / 2: It is a port developed by IBM for connecting the mouse or keyboard to your computer. Most PCs have a PS / 2 port for the serial port can be used to connect other peripherals.
  •  Infrared: Infrared requires a linear communication between transmitter and receiver, which makes the line of sight necessary for effective transmission. the frequencies of the infrared band does not allow penetration through walls, giving it an important advantage RF operating Bluetooth. Infrared communication will always be one to one, leaving aside the point to multipoint configurations.
  •  Stabilizers UPS: PC has become one of the most important tools that we have to perform tasks both at home and in the office. To this point it has reached the degree of dependence we have most of us with that nice, intriguing and very useful little box, that when a power outage occurs, we feel isolated and unable to communicate.
  •  Connector IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is the common name of all thirteen power connectors and plug thirteen panels, as defined in IEC 60320 (formerly IEC 320) specification of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
  • The impact printer is the type of printer that is based on the impact force to transfer ink to the recording medium (paper, transparencies, etc.) similar to the way typewriters.

Depending on how is the print head are divided into two main groups: Printers Printers margarita and needles.

  • A continuous ink system has many advantages that have become popular in many countries around the world: The cost of ink is reduced compared to the continuous replacement cartridges, has low maintenance (only in the case that the cartridge is damaged, It should make a thorough maintenance). Another important advantage is that you can keep recharging deposits as necessary, if the head is not damaged.
  •  Pompe: Two cartridges (one black with black ink and one or more ink colors) installed in an inkjet printer.

An ink cartridge or ink cartridge is injection replaceable assembly of a printer containing the ink and often also the print head itself projecting ink on paper during printing.

The name derives from the fact that corresponds to a hard container that is inserted inside the machine and ink containing either water based or a special solvent.